The purpose of this standard construction equipment safety procedure is to provide safe operating instructions for dozer operators working on any kind of construction or road projects.
Project director is overall responsible for the implementation of this standard procedure.
Authority to Operate
a) All dozer operators must:
i. hold a valid, project and equipment specific license (provided by third party)
– Third Party Certificate for Operator; (C.O.C.)
– Third Party Certificate for Vehicle; (C.O.F.)
– Registration if license plate available; and
ii. where legislated, possess a valid country license for heavy plant / equipment.
b) Note: legal age restrictions may apply and should be enforced by Project Managers.
Dozer Operation Planning Procedure
All dozer operators must plan their work with the Supervisor before commencing it. For example:
i. In pre-shift meeting find out relevant operational information, such as: allocated excavator and work area, agreed traffic patterns in the area, and other equipment / personnel in the vicinity (surveyors, scrapers, haul trucks);
ii. Find out about known hazards and environmental aspects of the work and their controls.
iii. Inform your Supervisor if you have been mistakenly allocated equipment for which you do not have a license – do not attempt to operate it!
Pre Start Safety Check
a) The operator should conduct a pre-start safety check at the start of each shift to determine whether or not the dozer is safe to operate.
b) Complete the check as per Daily Inspection Checklist, you must sign the form and give it to your Supervisor each shift.
c) Only proceed with work if the truck and work area are safe to do so – discuss any issues, hazards, defects with your Supervisor.
a) Check surroundings for unsafe conditions such as bad high walls, dump instability.
b) Check blade and ripper are on the ground and the park brake is set before beginning the inspection.
c) Check dozer blade for cracks and wear. Check cutting edges and ripper teeth.
d) Check all cylinders and linkage for damage, excessive wear and leaks.
e) Check and clean all windows, mirrors, and lights. Replace any broken items.
f) Check condition of ladders and handrails.
g) Check all fluid levels including engine oil, coolant, transmission and hydraulic oil. If equipped with water filter on fuel system, bleed off water
h) Check fire extinguisher is present, charged (in the green zone) and in date (tested in last 6 months) – contact your Supervisor for a replacement if fire extinguisher is discharged.
i) Check for leaks in coolant system, engine, hydraulic system or transmission.
j) Check air cleaner service indicator.
k) Inspect tracks for damage or excessive wear.
l) Equipped with Fire Extinguisher.
a) Inspect condition of any step /handholds before mounting – clean them if they are dirty to prevent slipping.
b) When mounting machine always maintain three points of contact – use the stepping points and grab rails provided with the heavy equipment.
c) Inspect operator’s compartment for cleanliness. Keep floor free of debris. Remove unauthorized tools, supplies and other material from the cabin – keep cabin clean for yourself and your co-workers.
d) Adjust the operator’s seat to be in a comfortable position while operating machine and to enhance line of sight.
e) Check seat belt works.
Defect Reporting and Stand Down Items
a) If a defect is identified, notify your Supervisor who would be required to make a decision whether the equipment is safe to operate – some defects may require equipment to be stood down until safely repaired.
b) Stand-down items include:
i. non-operational or dysfunctional braking and/or steering systems;
ii. inadequate 2-way radio communication;
iii. seat belt damage;
iv. fire extinguisher or deluge system discharged;
v. Stage 3 Warning lights non operational or indicate a problem on start-up or during operation;
vi. head lights not working.
c) The Supervisor is to attach a LOF (Lock-out Facility) to the isolation point if the equipment is not safe to be operated. If equipment to which you have been allocated has an out of service tag applied – do not operate.
d) A “Lock-out Facility‟ can only be removed by a qualified person affecting the repair and once equipment is safe to be used.
e) Also record defects / faults / damage in writing.
f) These are formal records and should be signed by both the operator and Supervisor. Comments are to be legible and accurately describe the defect or defect symptoms.
g) Report faulty air conditioning to the Supervisor to be repaired as soon as possible. The Supervisor is to make suitable arrangements, in the interim, to protect the operator’s health.
Construction Equipment – Dozer Operation Start Up
a) Fasten seat belt – it must be worn at all times.
b) Check transmission selector lever is in neutral and park brake is on.
c) Check all implement control levers are in the “hold”, “neutral” or “off‟ position.
d) Place hand throttle in low idle position.
e) Turn the start switch key to “on”.
f) Check the engine oil pressure, coolant flow, and alternator lights.
g) Sound horn once and wait 15 seconds. This is to indicate you are about to start the engine and allows time for people to move to safety.
h) Turn the engine start switch to “start” and release switch when engine starts
i) Check all gauges, warning lights and horn as engine warms at idle – do not ignore or become complacent about warning lights and do not excessively idle / rev a cold engine.
j) If any indicator lights stay on, report the circumstance immediately to the Supervisor.
k) Engage and disengage all implement controls to help speed warm up of hydraulic components.
l) Test brakes against engine power on torque converter equipped machines, otherwise test brakes against ground speed on all other tractors.
m) Test steering right and left.
n) Check track for broken segments and segment bolts.
o) If the dozer is in safe operating condition, proceed to the assigned work area:
i. sound your horn two times if driving forward;
ii. sound your horn three times if backing up; and
iii. in both instances, wait 15 seconds, and then release the park brake, shift transmission into desired direction.
p) Pull away slowly and cautiously from park-up area – do not speed.
General Safety Precautions
a) Operators should obey traffic rules and site signage at all times while operating heavy equipment:
i. drive on the correct side of roadway only;
ii. be cautious and observant at intersections and obey signage – never assume the other driver will;
iii. reduce speed at intersections – there is absolutely no need to speed through intersections;
iv. look in all directions at intersections – always check and obey who has right of way;
v. halt completely at “Stop Signs” – never perform a rolling stop;
vi. remain within the limit of all speed signs – do not speed.
b) Always practice safe driving behaviors:
i. drive to conditions – slow down when on slippery, dusty or rough roads and be prepared to stop if it starts to rain heavily.
ii. stop in a safe area when visibility is obstructed for any reason – advise the Supervisor.
iii. be observant of changed traffic arrangements and new signs;
iv. be observant of other equipment at all times;
v. look around / behind before and while reversing – do not reverse without looking behind you in your mirrors;
vi. drive at speeds slow enough to ensure you have complete control at all times. Travel slowly over rough ground and on hill-sides.
c) Operators are not allowed to smoke in the cabin of the dozer or to read, wear Walkman’s and use mobile phones whilst operating.
a) Always be aware of traffic movements in front of, behind, and to either side of the dozer.
b) Never reverse toward the edge of a steep decline.
c) Operate straight up and down slopes whenever possible – side hill operation reduces stability, which could cause machine to roll over.
d) The grade of the slope that is safe to work on is determined by such factors as condition of the ground, load being handled, and the type of dozer – stop, observe and assess the slope before working on it.
e) Do not obstruct your vision when travelling or working – carry blade low for maximum visibility.
f) When dozing or trimming down a grade or pushing to a bank edge, always face down hill direction with the dozer blade – never place dozer sideways to a slope or bank.
g) When dozing to an excavator / loader make sure you and the excavator / loader operator work together to avoid equipment damage or injuries to people.
h) If you need to turn a dozer while pushing material, use the dozer tilt or clutch only. Do not use the brake.
i) Should the dozer start slipping sideways on a grade turn it immediately in the direction of the down grade and lower the blade.
j) Keep work areas as smooth as possible. This results in easier maneuvering and minimizes operator fatigue. To maintain a smooth surface, make a small cut carrying material in front of the blade;
k) Avoid going over obstacles such as rough terrain, rocks, logs, ditches, and ridges whenever possible. The size and type of obstacles that can be safely crossed will depend on many factors including good judgement. When obstructions must be crossed, do so with extreme care at an angle if possible;
l) When dozing in new areas, exit the machine and test the soil with a rod to ensure the dozer will not sink or become bogged;
m) Check for the location of buried pipelines, gas lines or other buried material.
a) Rip in first gear only.
b) When ripping always try to rip downhill if possible. The weight of the dozer will help you rip the material with less effort on the dozer.
c) Never try to steer or turn dozer with ripper in the ground.
d) Never reverse dozer with ripper in the ground.
e) Never rip parallel to a high wall.
a) All operators are to be familiar with project-specific safe dumping practices.
b) Protect the safety of any spotters
c) Dumps are made of loose material creating many hazards to equipment operators – be observant of any cracks, sloughing and bulging at the dump / stockpile area and report them to your Supervisor.
d) Dozer operators, along with the Supervisor, are responsible for establishing safe dumping areas:
i. all dumps are to have berms to show the edge. They are to be ½ the wheel height of the largest plant using the area. All berms are to have a slight up gradient leading up to the rill for rear dump trucks;
ii. berms must be kept well maintained – dozers must not side cut them;
iii. avoid mixing materials in waste dumps, where possible – mixing may contribute to instability;
iv. the steepness of the dump should not exceed 45 degrees. Where it does, either cut the angle down to reduce steepness or move all dumping to at least 15 metres from the edge;
v. wheel dozers must not push over an edge – but they are able to level off the dump area;
vi. if the dump is over a highwall, the truck must dump short and the load is to be pushed off by a tracked dozer;
vii. Do not attempt operate in a dump area that is inadequately illuminated – inform the Supervisor who is responsible for arranging adequate lighting.
viii. Always leave a safety berms on the access road to the dump and high wall edges.
ix. Further details about safe dumping operations can be found in ZU/HLG/HSE/SPI/066 – Safe Dump Operations.
a) Third gear should be used for emergencies only. Use second gear when tramming dozer.
b) When tracks begin to spin during pushing operations, lighten the push load by raising or tilting the dozer blade until tracks stops spinning.
c) Always rip in first gear. If the track starts to spin adjust the angle or depth of the ripper shank until track stops spinning.
Dozer Shut Down Method
a) Operators are required to shut-down the engine in a way that is safe and protects the dozer from damage.
b) Shut-down the engine in accordance with training and manufacturers requirements.
c) Stop in a safe parking area.
d) Move transmission control to neutral and lower all implements to the ground.
e) Set park brake to „on‟.
f) Push hand throttle forward to idle. Allow engine to idle for five minutes.
g) Clean cabin and windows during this period – keep the cabin clean for you and your coworkers.
h) Push hand throttle lever all the way forward to stop engine.
i) Turn engine start switch to “off”.
j) Turn disconnect switch to “off”.
k) Use three points of contact when dismounting dozer – always step to the ground, never jump!
l) Make sure the Supervisor has received all paperwork and defect / repair information – do not forget!
m) Do not exit and leave a dozer that is idling.
How to Park Up Construction Heavy Equipment
a) Operators are required to park-up in a manner that is safe and protects the dozer from damage.
b) Discuss park-up position with the Supervisor before shift-change.
c) When parking in non-designated areas, park in a safe and orderly fashion:
i. park in an area that does not endanger pedestrians;
ii. park away from light vehicles;
iii. do not park on inclines;
iv. park away from overhangs, edges, excavations and refueling sites.
d) Before leaving, always double-check that equipment cannot roll out of position. Check, as a minimum, blade is lowered, the engine is off, braking system engaged and transmission is in neutral.
e) Wait to be picked up at the designated / pre-arranged area – do not wander about.